Water Sport
In the Balinese community trance of known as karauhan kalinggihan, kalinggaan, kodal or tedun, and is a part of ritual activity. Because trance is widespread here, it has become daily phenomenon for the Balinese Hindu community. In a ritualistic folk society, trance is accepted as something common, normal and even as a sign that a ritual activity has been given a response by god, by lesser gods, by deified ancestors, spirits, or to whom the ritual activity is aimed. Most villagers consider trance as a must in any ritual activity of a certain level, especially large-scale ceremonies, meaning that if nobody enters trance, the ritual activity is considered not to have been accepted by the supernatural world
Trance in Bali has been studied widely by many foreign researchers. The study began in the 1930s. In 1949 Jane Belo published “Bali: Rangda and Barong “, describing trance in the detail from an anthropological point of view. In 1960 Jane Belo also published by Columbia University Press.
Indonesian writer Priyohutomo wrote about Sanghyang dancing in Sana Buda Magazine, November 1955 edition, in a piece entitled “Sanghyang Chewan as shamanism games” that detailed the mysticism of Sanghyang dancing for which trance is the main attraction. Trance is considered integral to the dance and a must in a performance. Therefore Priyohutomo views this dance as a shamanistic game. In 1955 Balinese writer A.A.Gede Raka published “Balian” in Tradition and Folk Story No.4, which also dealt with trance
The American Journal of Psychiatry, July 1972, Published a piece about shamanism and its relation to modern mental health. The article, “Shamanism versus Psychiatry in Bali, Isle of the God: Some Modern Implication,”was written by Stanley Dean and Denny Tong, who both discussed trance in Bali from a shamanistic point of view. In 1975 another article was published-“Transcultural Aspects of Metapsychiatry: Focus on Shamanism in Bali,’by Roma O`Neil of the University of Melboune, Australia, who wrote about the institutionalization of trance in balinese traditional healing practice, with special reference to balian. In a thesis entitled”Institutionalized Spirit Possession and Healing Rites in a Balinese Villages,”O`Neil described healing rites through trance and how well-institualized into the balinese community, as well as how accepted socio-culturally they are. Gregory Bateson, husband of American Antrophologist Margaret Mead, has also written about trance. Based on a study made in Bali in the 1930s, he published an article in Ethos Journal, Claiming that trance had become well socialized in Bali.
Australian researcher Linda Connor wrote in Mankind Journal in December 1979, that trance was a form of aggression channeling for the balinese (Corpse Abuse and Trance in Bali: The Cultural Mediation of Aggression). Trance was also discussed in detail in her dissertation entitled “In Darkness and Light –A study of peasant Intellectuals in Bali.”The dissertation was presented in Sydney University in 1982